Friday, January 7, 2011

Fracking the life out of Arkansas and beyond

Rady Ananda, Contributing Writer
Activist Post

The last four months of 2010, nearly 500 earthquakes rattled Guy, Arkansas. [1]  The entire state experienced 38 quakes in 2009. [2]  The spike in quake frequency precedes and coincides with the 100,000 dead fish on a 20-mile stretch of the Arkansas River that included Roseville Township on December 30. The next night, 5,000 red-winged blackbirds and starlings dropped dead out of the sky in Beebe. [3]  Hydraulic fracturing is the most likely culprit for all three events, as it causes earthquakes with a resultant release of toxins into the environment. [4]

A close look at Arkansas’ history of earthquakes and drilling reveals a shocking surge in quake frequency following advanced drilling. The number of quakes in 2010 nearly equals all of Arkansas’ quakes for the entire 20th century. The oil and gas industry denies any correlation, but the advent of hydrofracking followed by earthquakes is a story repeated across the nation.  It isn’t going to stop any time soon, either.  Fracking has gone global.


Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) pumps water and chemicals into the ground at a pressurized rate exceeding what the bedrock can withstand, resulting in a microquake that produces rock fractures. Though initiated in 1947, technological advances now allow horizontal fracturing, vastly increasing oil and gas collection. [5] In 1996, shale-gas production in the U.S. accounted for 2 percent of all domestic natural gas production, reports Christopher Bateman in Vanity Fair. “Some industry analysts predict shale gas will represent a full half of total domestic gas production within 10 years.” [6] In 2000, U.S. gas reserve estimates stood at 177 trillion cubic feet, but ramped up to 245 tcf in 2008. These new technologies prompt experts to increase global gas reserve estimates ninefold. [7]

The grid below shows a section of the Arkansas River, with Roseville Township at bottom, where the first reports of the fish kill originated. The green lines surrounding and crossing the river indicate gas pipes, ranging from 8-20” in diameter. Any number of leaks in the pipes can explain the fish kill. Gas wells are shown by yellow ‘suns’ (see red arrows) and range from 1,500 to 6,500 feet deep. (Disposal wells, where drilling waste products are injected at high pressures, go as deep as 12,000 feet.) The red numbers next to the ‘suns’ give the number of gas wells in that spot, numbering close to 50 in this small area. [8]
(The gray numbers relate to the Township Numbering System. Each square equals one square mile. Click map for larger image.)

In December alone, over 150 earthquakes rocked Arkansas. [1] The swarm of quakes in Guy likely results from six years of intense drilling. Guy sits within the Fayetteville Shale Formation which, according to the Arkansas Geological Survey (AGS), is “the current focus of a regional shale-gas exploration and development program.”  A billion cubic feet of gas has been produced from this area since 2004. [9]

Thousands of wells are in operation in North-Central Arkansas (blue section of the following map). [10] Beebe, where the bird kill occurred, is in White County and Guy is at the northern end of Faulkner Co., where the anomalous earthquakes continue.


Red-winged blackbirds roost in clusters up to a million or more birds, often with other species like starlings and cowbirds. (In the 1950s and ’60s, roosts could number 20 million birds.)  Blackbirds prefer low, dense vegetative cover in wetlands or near streams. Though some may perch 30 feet above the water, most perch within one to two feet of it, and some will roost with their feet resting in water. Blackbirds can range up to 50 miles a day from roost to feeding sites, but they all settle in for the night before sunset. [11]

An earthquake of whatever scale can release a stream or cloud of gas and fracking chemicals which could easily explain why sleeping birds would suddenly take flight, and then quickly die as they succumbed to the toxic fumes. Of note, eight measured quakes within 40 miles of Beebe, and within 75 miles of Roseville, hit the area on December 30 thru several minutes past midnight on January 1st. [12]  This excludes any micro- or miniquakes which can have the same effect.  Significantly, the area is known for its prolific microquakes — numbering 40,000 since 1982. [1]

Canadian Geologist Jack Century crusades against induced seismicity from irresponsible drilling. In a 2009 speech before the Peace River Environmental Society, he provided a brief explanation of how fracking induces earthquakes, completely refuting industry denial that fracking causes quakes. Fracking induces not only micro- and mini-seismic actions that can compromise the integrity of well casings, but also large earthquakes registering on the order of 5 to 7 on the Richter Scale, resulting in human deaths. [13]

Scott Ausbrooks, geohazards supervisor for AGS, told CNN in December that while earthquakes aren’t unusual in Arkansas, the frequency is. [14]  Indeed, they’ve had a 1,200 percent increase in earthquakes over 2009 data just in the last four months of 2010. All of the quakes registered less than 3 on the Richter Scale; over 98% of them occurred near Guy, where we find the largest concentration of gas wells; and 99% occurred outside the New Madrid Fault zone (circled in red below) where seismic activity is expected, implying they are human induced [1]:


Though AGS publicly claims no earthquake relation to drilling, in early December, Arkansas banned new drilling permits until further notice.

CNN reported that “According to the Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission, there are at least a half dozen ‘disposal wells’ within a 500-square-mile zone around Guy.” Ausbrooks noted similar “incidents in Colorado in the 1960s at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, where deep water injection was tied to earthquakes.” [14] 

Arkansas Earthquake and Drilling History
When comparing Arkansas’ earthquake history with its drilling history, a causative correlation becomes obvious.
The entire 19th century saw 15 recorded earthquakes and none in the first decade of the new century.  A total of 694 quakes rocked Arkansas in the 20th century.  That number was surpassed in 2009-2010, with the bulk (483) occurring the last three months of 2010. Table 1 was prepared using complete quake data thru 2009 [15], complete data from August thru December, 2010 [1], and just North Central Arkansas quake data from January thru July, 2010. [16]
Arkla, Inc., through its many morphs, mergers and acquisitions,  is and has been a key gas driller in Arkansas.  Between 1975 and the early 1980s, the company found more gas than it produced. By 1982, Arkla was able to sell Central Louisiana Electric Company more than 100 million cubic feet of gas daily. By the early 1990s, it operated the sixth-largest pipeline system in the United States and was among the ten largest operators of natural gas reserves. [17] Its production timeline coincides with the massive jump in earthquakes in the 1970s and 1980s. Today, 37 companies drill for gas and oil in Arkansas. [18] 

Unregulated Fracking on a Global March
The U.S. and Canada are not alone in exploiting this highly destructive technology. Poland also embraces fracking. Several energy companies are currently exploring Poland’s reserves, including Conoco-Phillips, ExxonMobil, Marathon, Chevron, Talisman, Lane Energy, BNK Petroleum, Emfesz, EurEnergy Resources, RAG, San Leon Energy and Sorgenia E&P. [19]  These new technologies will significantly impact the global trade in natural gas, according to Forbes [20]:

“Poland consumes 14 billion cubic meters of gas a year and imports more than 70% of it from Russia. It is easy to see how the country could benefit from starting shale gas drilling as soon as possible. Not only could it decrease its dependency on Russia, it might even turn into a gas exporter.”

Bateman noted that Western and Central Europe have leased their lands to frackers. Australians are suffering from the same frack contaminations as Americans, and China is also exploiting the new technology. [6]

Josh Fox’s 2010 film, Gasland, documents a multitude of harmful consequences on animal and human life, as well as property values. The most infamous scene shows people able to ignite their contaminated tap water [21]:



Fox makes the point that Dick Cheney’s former company, Halliburton, lobbied for and won exemptions from the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, Superfund, and the Safe Drinking Water Act, thanks to our corporate-owned Congress.

Nor do drillers have to disclose the toxic chemicals used, contrary to the 1986 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. [22]  Though it did not hesitate to pass on Wall Street’s gambling debts to the public (twice), Congress has not found the will to pass the Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals (FRAC) Act.

In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency determined that fracking poses no threat to water supplies and that no further studies were needed. [23]  From some Orwellian nightmare, however, at least 65 of the chemicals used in fracking are considered hazardous by the EPA. They have been linked to “cancer; liver, kidney, brain, respiratory and skin disorders; birth defects; and other health problems,” according to a 2005 report by the Oil and Gas Accountability Project. Of primary concern to citizens, OGAP notes that “Approximately half of the water that Americans rely on for drinking comes from underground sources.” [24]

Wyoming took a proactive stance on full disclosure of fracking chemicals when it passed new rules in September. Loopholes, however, still allow companies to claim proprietary ownership of such information, restricting it from public view. [25]

Given the EPA’s position that fracking is safe, it’s not likely that Arkansas citizens will get much help from the federal government. Nor will they find a friend at the state level. The Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality has so far been unwilling or unable to stop UMETCO Minerals Corporation from illegally dumping toxic chemicals into streams. [26]

The same situation applies across the nation where state governments protect industry over environmental and human health.  Recently, outgoing Governor David Paterson vetoed legislation that would have put a moratorium on vertical and horizontal hydraulic drilling in New York. [27]  Already, Pennsylvania leases a third of its public lands to private energy drillers. [21]

Given government bias toward energy giants, and BP’s destruction of the Gulf of Mexico is a case in point, more direct action may be required by citizens, if environmental and human health are to be saved from the fossil fuel industry.

Rady Ananda holds a B.S. in Natural Resources from The Ohio State University’s School of Agriculture. 

Notes:
1. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Arkansas Earthquake Updates.” http://www.geology.ar.gov/geohazards/earthquakes.htm
2. Arkansas Geological Survey, “2009 Earthquakes.” http://www.geology.ar.gov/xl/2009_Earthquakes.xls
3. Food Freedom, “Massive fish kill and 1000s of birds fall from the sky in Arkansas,” 2 Jan. 2010. http://foodfreedom.wordpress.com/2011/01/02/massive-fish-kill-and-1000s-of-birds-fall-from-the-sky-in-arkansas/
4. Earthworks, “Hydraulic Fracturing and Earthquakes.”  http://www.earthworksaction.org/fracturingearthquakes.cfm
Also see:
Ben Cassleman, “Temblors Rattle Texas Town: Residents Suspect a Drilling Boom Is Triggering Small Quakes, but Scientists Lack Proof,” Wall Street Journal, 12 June 2009. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124476331270108225.html
James Glanz, “Deep in Bedrock, Clean Energy and Quake Fears,” New York Times, 23 June 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/24/business/energy-environment/24geotherm.html
James Glanz, Video: “The Danger of Digging Deeper,” New York Times, 23 June 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/06/23/us/Geothermal.html
5. U.S. Department of Energy, “Hydraulic Fracturing White Paper,” June 2004.  http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/uic/pdfs/cbmstudy_attach_uic_append_a_doe_whitepaper.pdf
6. Christopher Bateman, “A Colossal Fracking Mess,” Vanity Fair, 16 June 2010. http://www.vanityfair.com/business/features/2010/06/fracking-in-pennsylvania-201006?currentPage=all
7. Martin Walker, “Russia’s Fracked Future,” UPI, 1 Feb. 2010. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Analysis/2010/02/01/Walkers-World-Russias-fracked-future/UPI-21421265042152/
8. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Fayetteville Shale Gas Play West Map,” Last updated 2 March 2010. http://www.geology.ar.gov/maps_pdf/fossilfuels/Fay%20West%20Map%2042×44.pdf
9. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Gas.” http://www.geology.ar.gov/fossil_fuels/gas.htm
10. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Fayetteville Shale Gas Play.” http://www.geology.ar.gov/home/fayetteville_play.htm
11. Brooke Meanley, “The Roosting Behavior of the Red-Winged Blackbird in the Southern United States,” Wilson Bulletin, Vol. 77 No.3, pp 217-228, Sept. 1965. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v077n03/p0217-p0228.pdf
12. U.S. Geological Survey, “Map Centered at 35°N, 93°W” Accessed Jan. 5, 2010: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsus/Maps/US2/34.36.-94.-92.php
13. Jack Century, “Earthquake Risks: Building a Nuclear Power Plant near Peace River, Alberta,” Peace River Environmental Society, May 2009 (71 mins.) http://peaceriverenvironmentalsociety.org/; 8-part video at http://www.youtube.com/results?search_type=&search_query=jack+century&aq=f
14. CNN, “Arkansas Earthquakes,” 13 Dec. 2010. http://www.wibw.com/nationalnews/headlines/Arkansas_Earthquakes_111815534.html
15. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Earthquake Archive,” 2009. http://www.geology.ar.gov/xl/Earthquake_Archive.xls
16. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Recent and Historical Earthquakes in North-Central Arkansas,” October 2010 http://www.geology.arkansas.gov/maps_pdf/geohazards/CentralArkansasMediaMap.pdf
17. Funding Universe, “Arkla Inc.” n.d. http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/ARKLA-INC-Company-History.html
18. Manta.com, “37 Drilling Oil and Gas Wells Companies in Arkansas,” n.d.
http://www.manta.com/mb_44_E317D_04/drilling_oil_and_gas_wells/arkansas
19. STRATFOR, “Poland: Fracing On The Rise?” Forbes Magazine, 1 June 2010. http://blogs.forbes.com/energysource/2010/06/16/poland-fracing-on-the-rise/
20. TREFIS Team, “ConocoPhillips Has Big Fracking Plans For Poland, Stock Has Upside,” Forbes Magazine, 14 Dec. 2010. http://blogs.forbes.com/greatspeculations/2010/12/14/conocophillips-has-big-fracking-plans-for-poland-stock-has-upside/
21. Josh Fox, Gasland, 2010. http://www.gaslandthemovie.com/. See trailer showing ignited tap water at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UrnnQ17SH_A.
22. Sarah Collins and Tom Kenworthy, “Energy Industry Fights Chemical Disclosure: Natural gas companies want to prevent oversight of fracking,” Center for American Progress, April 2010. http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/04/fracking.html
23. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Evaluation of Impacts to Underground Sources of Drinking Water by Hydraulic Fracturing of Coalbed Methane Reservoirs Study,” June 2004. http://water.epa.gov/type/groundwater/uic/class2/hydraulicfracturing/wells_coalbedmethanestudy.cfm
24. Lisa Sumi, “Our Drinking Water at Risk: What EPA and the Oil and Gas Industry Don’t Want Us to Know about Hydraulic Fracturing,” Oil and Gas Accountability Project, April 2005. http://www.earthworksaction.org/pubs/DrinkingWaterAtRisk.pdf
25. Earthworks, Powder River Basin Resources Council, “Wyoming Requires Disclosure of Chemicals in Natural Gas Drilling,” 16 Sep 2010. http://earthworksaction.org/PR_WYdisclosure.cfm
26. Karoline Wightman, “UMETCO Minerals Corp not yet fined for releasing chemicals,” Fox News, 16 Nov. 2010. http://www.fox16.com/news/local/story/UMETCO-Minerals-Corp-not-yet-fined-for-releasing/cOwdIEMf-kugosx8EWbrQQ.cspx?rss=315
27. Tom Zeller, “New York Governor Vetoes Fracking Bill,” New York Times, 11 Dec. 2010. http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/12/11/new-york-governor-vetoes-fracking-bill/

Rady Ananda’s work has appeared in several online and print publications. She holds a B.S. in Natural Resources from The Ohio State University’s School of Agriculture. Using years of editorial experience and web publishing, Rady now promotes the ideas and work of a select group of quality writers and artists at Food Freedom and COTO Report

Recent Article by Rady Ananda:
Leaked Cable: Hike Food Prices to Boost GM Crop Approval in Europe 

RELATED ARTICLES:
Penn Allows Gas Fracking Waste To Be Dumped in Local Waterways
The 10 Leading Theories For Dead Birds and Fish



BE THE CHANGE! PLEASE SHARE THIS USING THE TOOLS BELOW

11 comments:

Rady said...

I realize the conspiracy theories are much more interesting, but I'm going with fracking to explain the mass kills.

btw, since the idea that the magnetic poles are reversing and may be the cause for mass kills, this contradicts what I was taught in college. I specifically asked the question if extinction events were correlated with polar shifts and the answer was -- the geological record does not support the theory. In other words, of the many hundreds of times the poles have shifted throughout geological history, there is no archeological evidence of mass die outs.

At first I wondered if the mass kills were HAARP related -- and they may be -- but Occam's Razor applies: the simplest solution (a 1200% increase in earthquakes) is usually correct.

Anonymous said...

Thanks for a very good article. I live in north-central Pennsylvania, and the fracking is going on all over the place here. Our house sits above an old coal mine and is undermined, so on top of the possibility water pollution, I fear that one of these days the fracking will cause the mine to subside, taking our house along with it.

Political Athiest said...

I don't think this is fracking or we would have seen this a lot sooner. I think this has something to do with the estimated 63K tons of Phosgene that the military confiscated in Iraq and stockpiling in the Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas.

Pine Bluff began an accelerated "disposal" program by injecting it deep into the ground (what could POSSIBLY go wrong?) which has caused some 500 minor earthquakes in the area. Phosgene is considered on of the most dangerous of chemical/bio weapons b/c it causes the lungs and respiratory system to literally explode.

The former Bush aide found in a New Jersey landfill happened to be a preeminent bio/chem warfare expert.

Yes, conspiracy theories are more "interesting" but if you trust your government, you've got nothing to worry about.

Rady said...

hey, North Central PA ~ that is frightening! if there's any way to move, I'd seriously consider it ... but I know that can be impossible for most of us.

Political Athiest... I'm all for getting at the truth. If the phosgene is buried in deep wells created for that purpose, then the act of drilling such deep wells might add to the reason for such a huge increase in earthquakes in Arkansas.

It might even be a combination of both... fracking creates fractures... any of those fractures might have accessed a well holding the phosgene.

Peter said...

I'd guess that the same people who believe in man-caused global warming (climate change?) will also believe in the nonsense that fracing releases "toxins" capable of killing flocks of birds. Does anyone still adhere to the "scientific method" of solving problems or have we become a nation of robotic, sheep-like alarmists?

Rady said...

you make a good point, tho... With as long as fracking has been around, we'd have seen these massive bird and fish kills before now.

also... some of the bird pix I saw, the birds were bloody at the throat.

that fits in with the effects of phosgene

Anonymous said...

Wouldn't fracking have affected more than one species of fish?

Say No To Corporate America! said...

Wonderful information about the relationship to fracking and Arkansas earthquakes. Thank you! No doubt fracking is very harmful but it doesn't explain the many other massive kills. Some are fresh water and some are salt water fish kills- coastal and inland birds too.

I think the mass kills are related to chemtrails because the US and Europe are the most heavily sprayed areas; there was very heavy spraying over the holidays in US and Europe; most of the mass kills are US and Europe. The gov is downplaying these kills and they are the sprayers. And then we have the murder of John Wheeler; he was Special Assistant to the Sec of Air Force (he knew many things about biological welfare).

There is information about Wheeler in my 01/05/11 blog post and a collection of Christmas chemtrails on my post 'Normalcy Bias'; http://saynotocorporateamerica.blogspot.com/2010/12/normalcy-bias.html

and a Google map of the mass kills;
http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?ie=UTF8&msa=0&msid=201817256339889828327.0004991bca25af104a22b&ll=28.921631%2C5.273438&spn=141.542315%2C12.304687&z=2&iwloc=0004991c2e41cf55affcb

In response to, 'more direct action may be required by citizens'... you are correct! These events show action is definitely required in all aspects of our environment and human health. Thanks again-

Rady said...

Okay, I've looked into the phosgene aspect more closely now and would modify this report.

The information about fracking, earthquakes and the toxic effects on the environment stands. The information about Arkansas' earthquake and drilling history stand...

But I now think the Beebe bird kill and the Roseville fish kill are the result of phosgene being released in the area.

To those who say it is a single species kill, this is inaccurate. It is true that drum fish predominately died, and that most of the birds that died were blackbirds, but in both cases, other species were involved. Since the area was populated mostly by blackbirds, then of course mostly blackbirds would die. Same goes for the drum fish.

This is how I've modified this report on other websites:

Jan. 7 UPDATE: Missing from this report is the information that the US military apparently drilled 500 deep wells in Central Arkansas to dispose of phosgene, a highly toxic gas that causes the respiratory system to explode. (As reported below, deep well drilling causes earthquakes.)

According to the EU Times, Russia’s spy agency, GRU, reported that the US relocated 63,000 metric tons of phosgene from Iraq to the Arkansas' Pine Bluff Arsenal, the nation’s premier chemical and bio weapons lab. Some or most of this material was and continues to be relocated to Afghanistan.

The GRU report claims that while transporting the gas via a US Air Force KC-767 tanker aircraft, a “malfunction” occurred in the aerial spraying system on December 30, killing 100,000 fish along a 20-mile stretch of the Arkansas River near Roseville. The next day, on another KC-767, again the aerial spraying system “malfunctioned” killing 5,000 blackbirds near Beebe.

According to CNN, "the birds suffered from acute physical trauma leading to internal hemorrhage and death." A spokesperson for the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission "said the birds showed evidence of trauma in the breast tissue, with blood clots in the body cavity and a lot of internal bleeding. All major organs were normal."

Bioweapons expert John Wheeler threatened to expose the operation and, according to GRU, was killed for it.

Anonymous said...

Excellent article and writing. I never knew about fracking before this. Very clear explanation.

Anonymous said...

How about... These earthquakes are occurring because they're along a moderately unstable fault line according to http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/01/22/us-fault-lines-graphic-ea_n_432948.html ???

Post a Comment