Just the Science: List of Studies that Prove 5G and 4G Densification Is NOT Safe (and 3G Isn’t Safe Either)

By B.N. Frank

“The Race for 5G” requires the densification of both 4G and 5G technology.  Opposition to this is worldwide.  Cities AND countries continue taking action against deployment.  This includes delaying and halting installation as well as issuing moratoriums (see 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10).  In fact, doctors and scientists have been requesting moratoriums on 5G since 2017 on Earth as well as in space (see 1, 2, 3).

Nevertheless, there are still proponents in powerful positions who insist all of this is safe.  Thanks to Environmental Health Trust for providing an extensive list of research with web links that says otherwise:

Many people ask “Where is the scientific evidence? How do you know that 5G and the deployment of small cells (which usually is 4G) is not safe? Why do you say it is harmful?” 

The answer is that an ever growing and large body published research has found adverse effects from wireless radiation. Effects have been found at levels that are legal and permissible. 5G will use frequencies that are currently in use as well as higher frequencies never used in any widespread way.  

As stated in the Lancet, “This weight of scientific evidence refutes the prominent claim that the deployment of wireless technologies poses no health risks at the currently permitted non-thermal radiofrequency exposure levels. Instead, the evidence supports the International EMF Scientist Appeal by 244 scientists from 41 countries who have published on the subject in peer-reviewed literature and collectively petitioned the WHO and the UN for immediate measures to reduce public exposure to artificial electromagnetic fields and radiation.”

See examples of research clearly showing that wireless radiation and non ionizing electromagnetic fields  have biological effects. To state that 5G or 4G is safe is simply wrong. No such proof of safety exists.

Get facts about 5G here.

Read the science below.

Russell, C. (2018). 5 G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. Environmental Research, 165, 484-495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016

Kostoff, R., Heroux, P., Aschner, M., & Tsatsakis, A. (2020). Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditions. Toxicology Letters, 323, 35-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.01.020

Di Ciaula, A. (2018). Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications?. International Journal Of Hygiene And Environmental Health, 221(3), 367-375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.01.011

Neufeld, E., & Kuster, N. (2018). Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Physics, 115(6), 705-711. https://doi.org/10.1097/hp.0000000000000930

Betzalel, N., Ben Ishai, P., & Feldman, Y. (2018). The human skin as a sub-THz receiver – Does 5G pose a danger to it or not?. Environmental Research, 163, 208-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.032

Betzalel, N., Feldman, Y., & Ishai, P. (2017). The Modeling of the Absorbance of Sub-THz Radiation by Human Skin. IEEE Transactions On Terahertz Science And Technology, 7(5), 521-528. https://doi.org/10.1109/tthz.2017.2736345

Thielens, A., Bell, D., Mortimore, D., Greco, M., Martens, L., & Joseph, W. (2018). Exposure of Insects to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields from 2 to 120 GHz. Scientific Reports, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22271-3

Review Publications on Electromagnetic Radiation and RF  

Yakymenko, I., Tsybulin, O., Sidorik, E., Henshel, D., Kyrylenko, O., & Kyrylenko, S. (2015). Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation. Electromagnetic Biology And Medicine, 35(2), 186-202. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2015.1043557

Bandara, P., & Carpenter, D. (2018). Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact. The Lancet Planetary Health, 2(12), e512-e514. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2542-5196(18)30221-3

Belpomme, D., Hardell, L., Belyaev, I., Burgio, E., & Carpenter, D. (2018). Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspective. Environmental Pollution, 242, 643-658. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.019

Singh, R., Nath, R., Mathur, A. K., & Sharma, R. S. (2018). Effect of radiofrequency radiation on reproductive health. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 148, 92–99. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1056_18

Levitt, B., & Lai, H. (2010). Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell tower base stations and other antenna arrays. Environmental Reviews, 18, 369-395. https://doi.org/10.1139/a10-018


Miller, A., Morgan, L., Udasin, I., & Davis, D. (2018). Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102). Environmental Research, 167, 673-683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.06.043

Carlberg, M., & Hardell, L. (2017). Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation. Biomed Research International, 2017, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9218486

Atzmon, I., Linn, S., Richter, E., & Portnov, B. (2016). Microwave/Radiofrequency (MW/RF) Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk: Meta-Analysis of Accumulated Empirical Evidence. International Journal Of Cancer And Clinical Research, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1040

Peleg, M., Nativ, O., & Richter, E. (2018). Radio frequency radiation-related cancer: assessing causation in the occupational/military setting. Environmental Research, 163, 123-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.003

Cell Phone Radio Frequency Radiation. Ntp.niehs.nih.gov. (2018). Retrieved 8 May 2020, from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/whatwestudy/topics/cellphones/index.html?utm_source=direct&utm_medium=prod&utm_campaign=ntpgolinks&utm_term=cellphone.

Hardell, L., & Carlberg, M. (2018). Comments on the US National Toxicology Program technical reports on toxicology and carcinogenesis study in rats exposed to whole-body radiofrequency radiation at 900 MHz and in mice exposed to whole-body radiofrequency radiation at 1,900 MHz. International Journal Of Oncology. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2018.4606

Falcioni, L., Bua, L., Tibaldi, E., Lauriola, M., De Angelis, L., & Gnudi, F. et al. (2018). Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emission. Environmental Research, 165, 496-503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.037

Lerchl, A., Klose, M., Grote, K., Wilhelm, A., Spathmann, O., & Fiedler, T. et al. (2015). Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans. Biochemical And Biophysical Research Communications, 459(4), 585-590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.02.151

Tillmann, T., Ernst, H., Streckert, J., Zhou, Y., Taugner, F., Hansen, V., & Dasenbrock, C. (2010). Indication of cocarcinogenic potential of chronic UMTS-modulated radiofrequency exposure in an ethylnitrosourea mouse model. International Journal Of Radiation Biology, 86(7), 529-541. https://doi.org/10.3109/09553001003734501


Cucurachi, S., Tamis, W., Vijver, M., Peijnenburg, W., Bolte, J., & de Snoo, G. (2013). A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Environment International, 51, 116-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2012.10.009

Otitoloju, A., Obe, I., Adewale, O., Otubanjo, O., & Osunkalu, V. (2009). Preliminary Study on the Induction of Sperm Head Abnormalities in Mice, Mus musculus, Exposed to Radiofrequency Radiations from Global System for Mobile Communication Base Stations. Bulletin Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, 84(1), 51-54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9894-2

Kumar, N., Sangwan, S., & Badotra, P. (2011). Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey bees. Toxicology International, 18(1), 70. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.75869

Favre, D. (2011). Mobile phone-induced honeybee worker piping. Apidologie, 42(3), 270-279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13592-011-0016-x

Goldsworthy, A. (2009). The Birds, the Bees and Electromagnetic Pollution [PDF]. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from https://ecfsapi.fcc.gov/file/7520958012.pdf.

Sainudeen, S. (2011). Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) clashes with honey bees. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1(5), 897-900. https://doi.org/10.5897/jen11.014

Sharma, V., & Kumar, N. (2010). Changes in honey bee behaviour and biology under the influence of cell phone radiations. Current Science, 98(10), 1376-1378. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from

Kimmel, S., Kuhn, J., Harst, W., & Stever, H. (2007). Electromagnetic Radiation: Influences on Honeybees (Apis mellifera)IIAS-InterSymp Conference, Retrieved 12 May 2020, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292405747_Electromagnetic_radiation_Influences_on_honeybees_Apis_mellifera_IIAS-InterSymp_Conference

Harst, W., Kuhn, J., & Stever, H. (2006). Can Electromagnetic Exposure Cause a Change in Behaviour? Studying Possible Non-Thermal Influences on Honey Bees – An Approach within the Framework of Educational Informatics. IIAS-InterSymp Conference, 1(6), 1-6. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from  http://bemri.org/publications/wildlife-and-plants/100-can-emf-exposure-cause-a-change-in-behaviour-studying-possible-non-thermal-influences-on-bees.html

Kimmel, Stefan & Kuhn, Jochen & Harst, Wolfgang & Stever, Hermann. (2007). Electromagnetic radiation: Influences on honeybees (Apis mellifera). IIAS-InterSymp Conference. Baden-Baden. 1-6.

Waldmann-Selsam, C., Balmori-de la Puente, A., Breunig, H., & Balmori, A. (2016). Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations. Science Of The Total Environment, 572, 554-569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.045

Pall, M. (2018). Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health. Environmental Research, 164, 405-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.035

Zothansiama, Zosangzuali, M., Lalramdinpuii, M., Jagetia, G., & Siama, Z. (2017). Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. Electromagnetic Biology And Medicine, 36(3), 295-305. https://doi.org/10.1080/15368378.2017.1350584

Gulati, S., Yadav, A., Kumar, N., Kanupriya, Aggarwal, N., Kumar, R., & Gupta, R. (2015). Effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms on Genetic Damage in Humans Populations Exposed to Radiation From Mobile Towers. Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, 70(3), 615-625. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-015-0195-y

Dode, A., Leão, M., Tejo, F., Gomes, A., Dode, D., & Dode, M. et al. (2011). Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Science Of The Total Environment, 409(19), 3649-3665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.05.051

Meo, S., Almahmoud, M., Alsultan, Q., Alotaibi, N., Alnajashi, I., & Hajjar, W. (2018). Mobile Phone Base Station Tower Settings Adjacent to School Buildings: Impact on Students’ Cognitive Health. American Journal Of Men’s Health, 13(1), 155798831881691. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988318816914

Abdel-Rassoul, G., El-Fateh, O., Salem, M., Michael, A., Farahat, F., El-Batanouny, M., & Salem, E. (2007). Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations. Neurotoxicology, 28(2), 434-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2006.07.012

Meo, S., Alsubaie, Y., Almubarak, Z., Almutawa, H., AlQasem, Y., & Hasanato, R. (2015). Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, 12(11), 14519-14528. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121114519

Hutter, H., Moshammer, H., Wallner, P., & Kundi, M. (2006). Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations. Occupational And Environmental Medicine, 63(5), 307-313. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2005.020784

Santini, R., Santini, P., Danze, J., Le Ruz, P., & Seigne, M. (2002). [Investigation on the health of people living near mobile telephone relay stations: I/Incidence according to distance and sex]. Pathologie Biologie, 50(6), 369-373. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0369-8114(02)00311-5

Gandhi, G., Kaur, G., & Nisar, U. (2015). A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station. Electromagnetic Biology And Medicine, 34(4), 344-354. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2014.933349

Sharma, A., Lamba, O., Sharma, L., & Sharma, A. (2018). Effect of Mobile Tower Radiation on Microbial Diversity in Soil and Antibiotic Resistance. 2018 International Conference On Power Energy, Environment And Intelligent Control (PEEIC). https://doi.org/10.1109/peeic.2018.8665432

Examples of How It is Factual that the Proliferation of Cell Antennas Increase Exposures in Communities

Mazloum, T., Aerts, S., Joseph, W., & Wiart, J. (2018). RF-EMF exposure induced by mobile phones operating in LTE small cells in two different urban cities. Annals Of Telecommunications, 74(1-2), 35-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12243-018-0680-1

Bhatt, C., Redmayne, M., Billah, B., Abramson, M., & Benke, G. (2016). Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures in kindergarten children. Journal Of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 27(5), 497-504. https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2016.55

Sagar, S., Adem, S., Struchen, B., Loughran, S., Brunjes, M., & Arangua, L. et al. (2018). Comparison of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in different everyday microenvironments in an international context. Environment International, 114, 297-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.02.036

Urbinello, D., Joseph, W., Verloock, L., Martens, L., & Röösli, M. (2014). Temporal trends of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in everyday environments across European cities. Environmental Research, 134, 134-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.07.003

Birks, L., Struchen, B., Eeftens, M., van Wel, L., Huss, A., & Gajšek, P. et al. (2018). Spatial and temporal variability of personal environmental exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields in children in Europe. Environment International, 117, 204-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.04.026

Choi, J., Hwang, J., Lim, H., Joo, H., Yang, H., & Lee, Y. et al. (2018). Assessment of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure from personal measurements considering the body shadowing effect in Korean children and parents. Science Of The Total Environment, 627, 1544-1551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.318

Zeleke, B., Brzozek, C., Bhatt, C., Abramson, M., Croft, R., & Freudenstein, F. et al. (2018). Personal Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields among Australian Adults. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, 15(10), 2234. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102234

Experts Warn that Measurement Techniques Do Not Adequately Measure 5G Exposures  

Blackman, C., & Forge, S. (2019). 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA and Asia [PDF]. Study for the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies. Luxembourg: European Parliament.

Karaboytcheva, M. (2020). Effects of 5G wireless communication on human health [PDF].  European Parliamentary Research Service. Luxembourg: European Parliament. Retrieved from https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2020/646172/EPRS_BRI(2020)646172_EN.pdf?fbclid=IwAR3cD0TDOqGHpOmCWPnANN-Y6RBaa0eoQ4ZN0nuUwpVaLL8MIDtt6aKtiYM

Nasim, I., & Kim, S. (2017). Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink. Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.03683

Nasim, I., & Kim, S. (2019). Human EMF Exposure in Wearable Networks for Internet of Battlefield Things. MILCOM 2019 – 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). https://doi.org/10.1109/milcom47813.2019.9020889

Additional  Research on 3G and 4G

National Toxicology Program (NTP) Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation, Final Reports

Resources on the NTP study:

Panagopoulos, D. (2019). Chromosome damage in human cells induced by UMTS mobile telephony radiation. General Physiology And Biophysics, 38(05), 445-454. https://doi.org/10.4149/gpb_2019032

Markovà, E., Hillert, L., Malmgren, L., Persson, B., & Belyaev, I. (2005). Microwaves from GSM Mobile Telephones Affect 53BP1 and γ-H2AX Foci in Human Lymphocytes from Hypersensitive and Healthy Persons. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(9), 1172-1177. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7561

Belyaev, I., Markovà, E., Hillert, L., Malmgren, L., & Persson, B. (2009). Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long-lasting inhibition of 53BP1/γ-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes. Bioelectromagnetics, 30(2), 129-141. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.20445

Markovà, E., Malmgren, L., & Belyaev, I. (2010). Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(3), 394-399. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0900781

Broom, K., Findlay, R., Addison, D., Goiceanu, C., & Sienkiewicz, Z. (2019). Early‐Life Exposure to Pulsed LTE Radiofrequency Fields Causes Persistent Changes in Activity and Behavior in C57BL/6 J Mice. Bioelectromagnetics, 40(7), 498-511. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.22217

Yu, G., Tang, Z., Chen, H., Chen, Z., Wang, L., & Cao, H. et al. (2020). Long-term exposure to 4G smartphone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation diminished male reproductive potential by directly disrupting Spock3–MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult rats. Science Of The Total Environment, 698, 133860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133860

Vecsei, Z., Knakker, B., Juhász, P., Thuróczy, G., Trunk, A., & Hernádi, I. (2018). Short-term radiofrequency exposure from new generation mobile phones reduces EEG alpha power with no effects on cognitive performance. Scientific Reports, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36353-9

Yang, L., Chen, Q., Lv, B., & Wu, T. (2016). Long-Term Evolution Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Modulates the Resting State EEG on Alpha and Beta Bands. Clinical EEG And Neuroscience, 48(3), 168-175. https://doi.org/10.1177/1550059416644887

Lv, B., Chen, Z., Wu, T., Shao, Q., Yan, D., & Ma, L. et al. (2014). The alteration of spontaneous low frequency oscillations caused by acute electromagnetic fields exposure. Clinical Neurophysiology, 125(2), 277-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2013.07.018

Wei, Y., Yang, J., Chen, Z., Wu, T., & Lv, B. (2018). Modulation of resting-state brain functional connectivity by exposure to acute fourth-generation long-term evolution electromagnetic field: An fMRI study. Bioelectromagnetics, 40(1), 42-51. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.22165

Clegg, F., Sears, M., Friesen, M., Scarato, T., Metzinger, R., & Russell, C. et al. (2020). Building science and radiofrequency radiation: What makes smart and healthy buildings. Building And Environment, 176, 106324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106324

Compilation of Research Studies on Cell Tower Radiation and Health 

Falcioni, L., Bua, L., Tibaldi, E., Lauriola, M., De Angelis, L., & Gnudi, F. et al. (2018). Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emission. Environmental Research, 165, 496-503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.037

Belpoggi, F. Carcinogenic effect of base station environmental emission? – The latest results of in vivo studies [Video].

Belpoggi, F., Melnick, R., Carpenter, D., Davis, D., Hardell, L., & Sasco, A.  Ramazzini Institute Study on Base Station Radiofrequency Radiation: Teleconference March 22, 2018 [Video]

Shahbazi-Gahrouei, D. (2017). Base transceiver station antennae exposure and human health. International Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 8(1), 77. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.ijpvm_180_17

Pearce, J. (2020). Limiting liability with positioning to minimize negative health effects of cellular phone towers. Environmental Research, 181, 108845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108845

Roda, C., & Perry, S. (2014). Mobile phone infrastructure regulation in Europe: Scientific challenges and human rights protection. Environmental Science & Policy, 37, 204-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2013.09.009

Nyakyi, C., Mrutu, S., Sam, A., & Anatory, J. (2013). Safety zone determination for wireless cellular tower- a case study from Tanzania. International Journal Of Research In Engineering And Technology, 02(09), 194-201. https://doi.org/10.15623/ijret.2013.0209029

Yakymenko, I., Sidorik, E., Kyrylenko, S., & Chekhun, V. (2011). Long-term exposure to microwave radiation provokes cancer growth: evidences from radars and mobile communication systems. Experimental Oncology, 33, 62-70. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21716201.

Khurana, V., Hardell, L., Everaert, J., Bortkiewicz, A., Carlberg, M., & Ahonen, M. (2010). Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Risk from Mobile Phone Base Stations. International Journal Of Occupational And Environmental Health, 16(3), 263-267. https://doi.org/10.1179/oeh.2010.16.3.263

Eskander, E., Estefan, S., & Abd-Rabou, A. (2012). How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles?. Clinical Biochemistry, 45(1-2), 157-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2011.11.006

Navarro, E., Segura, J., Portolés, M., & Gómez‐Perretta de Mateo, C. (2003). The Microwave Syndrome: A Preliminary Study in Spain. Electromagnetic Biology And Medicine, 22(2-3), 161-169. https://doi.org/10.1081/jbc-120024625

Wolf, R., & Wolf, D. (2004). Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station. International Journal Of Cancer Prevention, 1(2). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Eger, H., Hagen, K., Lucas, B., Vogel, P., & Voit, H. (2004). Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station. Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft, 17. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from http://avaate.org/IMG/pdf/20041118_naila.pdf.

The Bioeffects of Millimeter Waves Documented Years Ago

Declassified and Approved for release 2012/05/10: CIA-RDP88B01125R000300120005-6. (1977). Biological effect of millimeter radiowaves (pp. 116-119). Kiev: Vrachebnoye Delo.

Pakhomov, A., Akyel, Y., Pakhomova, O., Stuck, B., & Murphy, M. (1998). Current state and implications of research on biological effects of millimeter waves: A review of the literature. Bioelectromagnetics, 19(7), 393-413. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1521-186x(1998)19:7<393::aid-bem1>3.0.co;2-x

Wang, Q., Zhao, X., Li, S., Wang, M., Sun, S., & Hong, W. (2017). Attenuation by a Human Body and Trees as well as Material Penetration Loss in 26 and 39 GHz Millimeter Wave Bands. International Journal Of Antennas And Propagation, 2017, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2961090

Stewart, D., Gowrishankar, T., & Weaver, J. (2006). Skin Heating and Injury by Prolonged Millimeter-Wave Exposure: Theory Based on a Skin Model Coupled to a Whole Body Model and Local Biochemical Release From Cells at Supraphysiologic Temperatures. IEEE Transactions On Plasma Science, 34(4), 1480-1493. https://doi.org/10.1109/tps.2006.878996

Papaioannou, A., & Samaras, T. (2011). Numerical Model of Heat Transfer in the Rabbit Eye Exposed to 60-GHz Millimeter Wave Radiation. IEEE Transactions On Biomedical Engineering, 58(9), 2582-2588. https://doi.org/10.1109/tbme.2011.2159502H. Siegel and V. Pikov, “Impact of low intensity millimetre waves on cell functions,” in Electronics Letters, vol. 46, no. 26, pp. s70-s72, 23 December 2010, doi: 10.1049/el.2010.8442. Full PDF

Simkó M, Mattsson MO. 5G Wireless Communication and Health Effects-A Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHz. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(18):3406. Published 2019 Sep 13. doi:10.3390/ijerph16183406

Compendiums for Additional Research 

BioInitiative Report: A Rationale for Biologically-based Public Exposure Standards for Electromagnetic Fields (ELF and RF). The BioInitiative Report. (2020). Retrieved 12 May 2020, from https://bioinitiative.org/.

Moskowitz,, J. (2018). Annotated Bibliography of Scientific Papers Finding Evidence of Harm from Cell Phone Radiation Exposure [PDF]. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1zeM5L7-x4Xnu9B6SxpHPQ0J_dHIHMQCy/view.

PowerWatch. (2018). PowerWatch: 1,670 Peer-Reviewed Scientific Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health [PDF]. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from https://drive.google.com/file/d/19CbWmdGTnnW1iZ9pxlxq1ssAdYl3Eur3/view.

Panagopoulos, D., Johansson, O., & Carlo, G. (2015). Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity. Scientific Reports, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep14914

Panagopoulos, D., Johansson, O., & Carlo, G. (2015). Real versus Simulated Mobile Phone Exposures in Experimental Studies. Biomed Research International, 2015, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/607053

Belyaev, I., Dean, A., Eger, H., Hubmann, G., Jandrisovits, R., & Kern, M. et al. (2016). EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses. Reviews On Environmental Health, 31(3). https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0011

Le Pogam, P., Le Page, Y., Habauzit, D., Doué, M., Zhadobov, M., & Sauleau, R. et al. (2019). Untargeted metabolomics unveil alterations of biomembranes permeability in human HaCaT keratinocytes upon 60 GHz millimeter-wave exposure. Scientific Reports, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-45662-6

Soubere Mahamoud, Y., Aite, M., Martin, C., Zhadobov, M., Sauleau, R., Le Dréan, Y., & Habauzit, D. (2016). Additive Effects of Millimeter Waves and 2-Deoxyglucose Co-Exposure on the Human Keratinocyte Transcriptome. PLOS ONE, 11(8), e0160810. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160810

Mandl, P., Pezzei, P., & Leitgeb, E. (2018). Selected Health and Law Issues Regarding Mobile Communications with Respect to 5G. 2018 International Conference On Broadband Communications For Next Generation Networks And Multimedia Applications (CoBCom), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/cobcom.2018.8443980

Tripathi, S., Ben Ishai, P., & Kawase, K. (2018). Frequency of the resonance of the human sweat duct in a normal mode of operation. Biomedical Optics Express, 9(3), 1301. https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.9.001301

Wu, T., Rappaport, T., & Collins, C. (2015). The human body and millimeter-wave wireless communication systems: Interactions and implications. 2015 IEEE International Conference On Communications (ICC), 2423-2429. https://doi.org/10.1109/icc.2015.7248688

Wu, T., Rappaport, T., & Collins, C. (2015). Safe for Generations to Come: Considerations of Safety for Millimeter Waves in Wireless Communications. IEEE Microwave Magazine, 16(2), 65-84. https://doi.org/10.1109/mmm.2014.2377587

Ramundo-Orlando, A. (2010). Effects of Millimeter Waves Radiation on Cell Membrane – A Brief Review. Journal Of Infrared, Millimeter, And Terahertz Waves, 31(12), 1400-1411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10762-010-9731-z

Feldman, Y., & Ben-Ishai, P. (2017). Potential Risks to Human Health Originating from Future Sub-MM Communication Systems. Jerusalem. Retrieved from https://ehtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/Yuri-Feldman-and-Paul-Ben-Ishai-Abstract.pdf

Feldman, Y., Puzenko, A., Ben Ishai, P., Caduff, A., & Agranat, A. (2008). Human Skin as Arrays of Helical Antennas in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Range. Physical Review Letters, 100(12), 128102. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.100.128102

Hayut, I., Ben Ishai, P., Agranat, A., & Feldman, Y. (2014). Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts. Physical Review E, 89(4), 042715. https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.89.042715

Hayut, I., Puzenko, A., Ben Ishai, P., Polsman, A., Agranat, A., & Feldman, Y. (2013). The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the Skin. IEEE Transactions On Terahertz Science And Technology, 3(2), 207-215. https://doi.org/10.1109/tthz.2012.2227476


Gandhi, O., & Riazi, A. (1986). Absorption of Millimeter Waves by Human Beings and its Biological Implications. IEEE Transactions On Microwave Theory And Techniques, 34(2), 228-235. https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.1986.1133316

Sypniewska, R., Millenbaugh, N., Kiel, J., Blystone, R., Ringham, H., Mason, P., & Witzmann, F. (2010). Protein changes in macrophages induced by plasma from rats exposed to 35 GHz millimeter waves. Bioelectromagnetics, 31(8), 656-663. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.20598

Ramundo-Orlando, A., Longo, G., Cappelli, M., Girasole, M., Tarricone, L., Beneduci, A., & Massa, R. (2009). The response of giant phospholipid vesicles to millimeter waves radiation. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Biomembranes, 1788(7), 1497-1507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2009.04.006

Chen, Q., Lu, D., Jiang, H., & Xu, Z. (2008). [Effects of millimeter wave on gene expression in human keratinocytes]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 37(1), 8-23. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18275115.

Feldman, Y., Puzenko, A., Ben Ishai, P., Caduff, A., & Agranat, A. (2008). Human Skin as Arrays of Helical Antennas in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Range. Physical Review Letters, 100(12). https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.100.128102

Gapeev, A., Rubanik, A., Pashovkin, T., & Chemeris, N. (2007). [Thermoelastic excitation of acoustic waves in biological models under the effect of the high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency]. Biofizika, 52(6), 92-1087. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18225661.

Millenbaugh, N., Kiel, J., Ryan, K., Blystone, R., Kalns, J., & Brott, B. et al. (2006). Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heat. Shock, 25(6), 625-632. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.shk.0000209550.11087.fd

Usichenko, T., Edinger, H., Gizhko, V., Lehmann, C., Wendt, M., & Feyerherd, F. (2006). Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Millimeter Waves for Pain Therapy. Evidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine, 3(2), 201-207. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nel012

Gugkova, O., Gudkov, S., Gapeev, A., Bruskov, V., Rubannik, A., & Chemeris, N. (2005). [The study of the mechanisms of formation of reactive oxygen species in aqueous solutions on exposure to high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies]. Biofizika, 50(5). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16248149.

Isakhanian, V., & Trchunian, A. (2005). [Indirect and repeated electromagnetic irradiation of extremely high freguency of bacteria Escherichia coli]. Biofizika, 50(4). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16212062.

Makar, V., Logani, M., Bhanushali, A., Kataoka, M., & Ziskin, M. (2004). Effect of millimeter waves on natural killer cell activation. Bioelectromagnetics, 26(1), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.20046

Lushnikov, K., Shumilina, Y., Yakushina, V., Gapeev, A., Sadovnikov, V., & Chemeris, N. (2004). Effects of Low-Intensity Ultrahigh Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Inflammatory Processes. Bulletin Of Experimental Biology And Medicine, 137(4), 364-366. https://doi.org/10.1023/b:bebm.0000035131.54215.ca

Sinotova, O., Novoselova, E., Glushkova, O., & Fesenko, E. (2004). [A comparison of the effects of millimeter and centimeter waves on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells]. Biofizika, 49(3). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15327216.

Gapeev, A., Lushnikov, K., Shumilina, I., Sirota, N., Sadovnikov, V., & Chemeris N, N. (2003). [Effects of low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation on chromatin structure of lymphoid cells in vivo and in vitro]. Radiatsionnaya Biologiya Radioekologiya, 43(1), 87-92. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12677665.

Lushnikov, K., Gapeedv, A., Shumilina, I., Shibaev, N., Sadovnikov, V., & Chmeris, N. (2003). [Decrease in the intensity of the cellular immune response and nonspecific inflammation upon exposure to extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation]. Biofizika, 48(5). Retrieved 14 May 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14582420.

Lushnikov, K., Gapeev, A., & Chemeris, N. (2002). [Effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the immune system and systemic regulation of homeostasis]. Radiatsionnaya Biologiya Radioekologiya, 42(5). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12449822.

Novoselova, E., Ogaĭ, V., Sinotova, O., Glushkova, O., Sorokina, O., & Fesenko, E. (2002). [Effect of millimeter waves on the immune system in mice with experimental tumors]. Biofizika, 47(5). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12397969.

Ushakov, V., Alipov, E., Shcheglov, V., & Belyaev, I. (2000). Nonthermal effects of extremely high-frequency microwaves on chromatin conformation in cells in vivo-dependence on physical, physiological, and genetic factors. IEEE Transactions On Microwave Theory And Techniques, 48(11), 2172-2179. https://doi.org/10.1109/22.884211

Szabo, I., Rojavin, M., Rogers, T., & Ziskin, M. (2001). Reactions of keratinocytes to in vitro millimeter wave exposure. Bioelectromagnetics, 22(5), 358-364. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.62

D’Andrea, J., & Chalfin, S. (2000). Effects of Microwave and Millimeter Wave Radiation on the Eye. Radio Frequency Radiation Dosimetry And Its Relationship To The Biological Effects Of Electromagnetic Fields, 395-402. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4191-8_43

Mason, P., Walters, T., Nelson, M., & Nelson, D. (2000). Skin heating effects of millimeter-wave irradiation-thermal modeling results. IEEE Transactions On Microwave Theory And Techniques, 48(11), 2111-2120. https://doi.org/10.1109/22.884202

Walters, T., Blick, D., Johnson, L., Adair, E., & Foster, K. (2000). Heating and pain sensation produced in human skin by millimeter waves. Health Physics, 78(3), 259-267. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-200003000-00003

Haas, A., Le Page, Y., Zhadobov, M., Sauleau, R., Dréan, Y., & Saligaut, C. (2017). Effect of acute millimeter wave exposure on dopamine metabolism of NGF-treated PC12 cells. Journal Of Radiation Research, 58(4), 439-445. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rrx004

Haas, A., Le Page, Y., Zhadobov, M., Sauleau, R., & Le Dréan, Y. (2016). Effects of 60-GHz millimeter waves on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells using high-content screening. Neuroscience Letters, 618, 58-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.02.038

Le Dréan, Y., Mahamoud, Y., Le Page, Y., Habauzit, D., Le Quément, C., Zhadobov, M., & Sauleau, R. (2013). State of knowledge on biological effects at 40–60 GHz. Comptes Rendus Physique, 14(5), 402-411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crhy.2013.02.005

Sivachenko, I., Medvedev, D., Molodtsova, I., Panteleev, S., Sokolov, A., & Lyubashina, O. (2016). Effects of Millimeter-Wave Electromagnetic Radiation on the Experimental Model of Migraine. Bulletin Of Experimental Biology And Medicine, 160(4), 425-428. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10517-016-3187-7

Soghomonyan, D., Trchounian, K., & Trchounian, A. (2016). Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria?. Applied Microbiology And Biotechnology, 100(11), 4761-4771. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7538-0

References on Millimeter waves in Military Non Lethal Weapon Program

Non-Lethal Weapons Program > About > Frequently Asked Questions > Active Denial System FAQs. Jnlwp.defense.gov. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://jnlwp.defense.gov/About/Frequently-Asked-Questions/Active-Denial-System-FAQs/.

The Human Effects Advisory Panel. (2008). A Narrative Summary and Independent Assessment of the Active Denial System. Penn State Applied Research Laboratory. Retrieved from https://jnlwp.defense.gov/Portals/50/Documents/Future_Non-Lethal_Weapons/HEAP.pdf

LeVine, S. (2009). The Active Denial System A Revolutionary, Non-lethal Weapon for Today’s Battlefield. Washington, DC: National Defense University Center for Technology and National Security Policy.

Law, D. (2012). Active Denial Technology (ADT). Presentation.

Important Animal Studies on Radiofrequency Radiation 

The National Toxicology Program. (2018). Actions from Peer Review of the Draft NTP Technical Reports on Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation March 26-28, 2018 [PDF]. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/about_ntp/trpanel/2018/march/actions20180328_508.pdf.

Smith-Roe, S., Wyde, M., Stout, M., Winters, J., Hobbs, C., & Shepard, K. et al. Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Male and Female Rats and Mice Following Subchronic Exposure [PDF]. Division of the National Toxicology Program/NIEHS. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from  

Carpenter, D. (2013). Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields. Reviews On Environmental Health, 28(4). https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2013-0016

Shinjyo, T., & Shinjyo, A. (2014). [Significant Decrease of Clinical Symptoms after Mobile Phone Base Station Removal – An Intervention Study]. Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft, 27(4), 294-301. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://www.emfanalysis.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Japanese-Study-2014-Significant-Decrease-of-Clinical-Symptoms-after-Mobile-Phone-Base-Station-Removal.pdf.

Oberfeld, G., Navarro, E., Portoles, M., Maestu, C., & Gomez-Perretta, C. (2002). The microwave syndrome – Further aspects of a Spanish study. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237410769_THE_MICROWAVE_SYNDROME_-_FURTHER_ASPECTS_OF_A_SPANISH_STUDY.

Bortkiewicz, A., Zmyślony, M., Szyjkowska, A., & Gadzicka, E. (2004). [Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: Review]. Medycyna Pracy, 55(4). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15620045.

Buchner, K., & Eger, H. (2011). Changes of neurochemically important transmitters under the influence of modulated rf fields – A long term study under real life conditions. Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft, 24(1), 44-57. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from https://ecfsapi.fcc.gov/file/7521095891.pdf.

Eger, H., Hagen, K., Lucas, B., Vogel, P., & Voit, H. (2004). [The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer]. Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft, 17. Retrieved 14 May 2020, from http://www.tetrawatch.net/papers/naila.pdf.

Pall, M. (2016). Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression. Journal Of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 75(Part B), 43-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2015.08.001

Pall, M. (2015). Scientific evidence contradicts findings and assumptions of Canadian Safety Panel 6: microwaves act through voltage-gated calcium channel activation to induce biological impacts at non-thermal levels, supporting a paradigm shift for microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic field action. Reviews On Environmental Health, 30(2). https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2015-0001

Since 2018, there have been reports of people and animals becoming sick after 5G was turned on (see 1. 2, 3, 4).  Obviously research has already proven that other sources of wireless AND Electromagnetic Radiation (aka “Electrosmog”) can cause symptoms and illness too.  Regardless – just because it’s legal for businesses, elected officials, and government agencies to add more sources of “Electrosmog” doesn’t mean they should.

Activist Post reports regularly about 5G and other unsafe technology.  For more information visit our archives and the following websites.

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